Purpose of Education :
What is the purpose of education? Scott Stalker of Wisconsin Gov. recently tried to quietly change the century-old mission of the University of Wisconsin system to propose “discovering the truth” and “reform” to the university by removing words in the state code. Human condition “and replacing them with the state’s workforce needs”.
When the issue became public, Walker supported it and sharply criticized academics and others, but the issue remained the subject of national debate and low office. This is Arthur H., director of the Center for Innovation in Engineering and Science Education at Stevens Institute of Technology of Hoboken, NJ. Was written by Camins. The views expressed in this article are his own and do not represent the Stevens Institute. His other writings can be found at www.arthurcamins.com.
Arthur H. By camins
The debate about the objectives of education never ends. Should young people be educated to be ready for entry into the workforce, or should the purpose of education focus more on social, educational, cultural and intellectual development so that students can grow up to become citizens?
Over the past 50 years, concern about competition with the Soviet Union, Japan, and China for global economic, military, and political dominance has supported periodic calls for more effective workforce development. Scott Scott Walker, the government of Wisconsin, recently tried to change the mission statement of the University of Wisconsin to focus exclusively on workforce development. With the demand for new workforce development or economic competitiveness in our K-12 schools, there has been a push from those who want more emphasis on a broader vision of education.
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But this is not to be either or education should prepare the youth for life, work and citizenship.
Knowledge of natural and engineered environments and how people live in the world is important for all three purposes of education. Critical thinking, creativity, interpersonal skills and a sense of social responsibility all influence success in life, work and citizenship.
For example, unhappy personal relationships often permeate the work environment, while a stressful workplace or unemployment negatively affects family life. Unorganized disgruntled citizens lead to poor policy choices affecting life, work and citizenship. To understand the verses in the old song, “You cannot be one without the others.”
This multi-purpose perspective has practical implications for day-to-day instruction as well as education policy.
Do classrooms support education for life, work and citizenship?
The key is to identify the learning behaviors in which students should be engaged. The National Research Council Framework for K-12 Science Education provides some good examples. The framework describes the practices that scientists and engineers use to build new knowledge and design, but also the engagement of the student that leads to learning.
To be clear, the framework begins with the premise that science is a tool for developing explanations for how the natural world works, and engineering is a tool for developing solutions to human problems. Both are intended to improve our lives – a strong motivator for all learning. With a little tweaking, the practices are amazingly applied to serve our many purposes as different school disciplines and vehicles.
(1) Ask questions about the event (cancer causes, climate change) and define the problems that need to be solved (designing cancer treatment drugs, low-impact energy production). In classrooms, students can ask questions about how living things find energy to live and grow. They can design prototypes of robots to clean up an oil spill. An academic focus on asking productive questions and defining meaningful problems is not just an educational skill. It is an important disposition for life, work and citizenship.
(2) Develop and use the model. Models represent relevant testable features of scientific explanations or design solutions. In classrooms, teachers engage students in clarifying, refining and advancing the surface of their understanding. Well done, this means that teachers do not present already established ideas, but engage students in examining and furthering their own ideas. This means that students are challenged to reflect what they already think and what other people know when developing an appropriate initial testing model.
A key modeling idea, which applies to life, work, and citizenship, is that most of the problems worth pondering are complex and trying to understand that complexity is a better approach than running towards simplicity. Another important consideration is that the model, or our initial idea, should be subject to systematic investigation. Knowing whether the compilation of those models with reality is important, lest we leave the poor with unintended consequences.
(3) Planning and checking. The goals of the investigation are to test, refine, or replace existing or hypothetical explanations or design solutions. For example, in high school biology classes, students can test to determine what algae are and the conditions to remove carbon dioxide from the atmosphere. To do this, they need to predict whether the data will support or challenge their initial ideas or design choices.
Developing students’ abilities to systematically examine data is yet another multipurpose education outcome. Taught well, students learn three basic premises: what data is available for questioning frame inquiries. The questions asked may not be as important. In addition, in an active classroom with a lot of time for discussion, students learn that different people look at the same data and reach different interpretations. Not a bad life skill!
(4) analyze and interpret data and (5) use mathematics and computational thinking. Data does not speak for itself. The probe or yield data must be interpreted to check for clarification. In classes organized around these eight practices, students learn that answers to important questions are not pre-determined. Instead, it provides answers by examining what, when, under what circumstances, and how the world works.
Students learn to use both traditional and modern interpretive tools. Especially in investigating complex systems or designing complex solutions, mathematical representation and computational analysis are important. Students learn not to memorize mathematics as processes, but as tools to make sense of the world – yet another multipurpose skill.
(4) preparing explanations and formulating solutions and
(7) Getting involved in arguments with evidence. The framework states:
“The goal for students is to construct logically consistent interpretations that fit their current understanding of science, or a model that presents it, and to the available evidence … [On proposed solutions to engineering design problems When considering], there is usually no single solution, but rather a series of solutions. Which is the best option depends on the criteria used to evaluate it. “
However, the framework goes one step further to say that in addition to developing logical evidence-based reasoning, students should practice defending or revising their explanations or solutions in the light of competing ideas. Think of the power to illustrate arguments and make them about evidence. Ensuring that life, work and citizenship are part of the fabric can be improved by addressing inevitable conflicts.
(8) Obtaining, evaluating and communicating information. Science and engineering practices are forward-looking, knowledge and solution-oriented and always demanding improvement. As such, there is a premium on communicating with others. Consequently, classrooms engaging in these practices are characterized by collaboration, reflection and openness to alternative ideas. Once again, great skills for nurturing life, work and citizenship.
Do policies promote education for life, work and citizenship?
First, in many traditional subject areas, applying these practices makes major shifts in teaching instructional emphasis to develop students’ expertise. These shifts will require new curriculum and professional development. This should be a high money priority.
Second, because substantial engagement in these practices is an important cultural change, time and patience are in order. No rapid improvement or short-term measurable results can be expected from current formative or summative assessment tools or practices.
Third, teaching through these practices demands content that has personal and social relevance for students so that they are engaged in their own learning intellectually and emotionally. This implies that teaching is an insufficient, if not infrequent, motivator for test success. As a result, current policies prioritizing consequential evaluation need to be seriously stopped.
Fourth, as our social and technological context is constantly evolving, education for life, work and citizenship cannot focus only on what is already known and how we now live. Therefore, privileged learning and assessment should give way to future learning.
No matter what progress has been made to transfer the practices and content of daily classroom instruction, inequality will remain a sufficient limiting factor. The application of systems thinking of progress in education policy in science and engineering means that real sustainable reform depends on addressing inequality in areas such as well-paid employment, health care, food and housing security. You can’t be the one without the others
Everything you need to know about the education loan: Step by step guide
It is getting expensive day by day. If you want to complete your education without burdening your parents or guardians or if you are unable to meet the expenses of your higher education, then you can go for educational loan. The first step towards availing education loan is to meet the eligibility criteria for getting loan in India.
Education Loan Eligibility Criteria
To take an education loan in India, an applicant must be an Indian citizen.
- Age Criteria
An applicant who is 18 years old can get an education loan or your parents can take a loan in their name. If you are above 35 years of age then no educational loan is given.
- Admission to academic courses
Applicant should confirm admission to a college / university in India by UGC / Government / AICTE / appropriate authority.
An applicant should have obtained at least 60 percent of the previous qualifying examinations.
Step by step guide:
Here is information about the most important education loan eligibility criteria.
The application process can vary from bank to bank, but there are some basic steps to get one:
Step 1: Loan Application
Applicant has to fill an application form which can ask for details like:
Two passport size photos
Graduate, Secondary School Certificate, or High School Certificate or Tables
KYC documents (Voter ID, and PAN card) containing ID, address and age proof
Parent income proof
For collateral – documentation for real estate, FD
If the applicant / candidates apply for loan to study abroad, they will have to provide the following documents:
Two passport size photos
KYC document Voter ID, and PAN card) containing ID, residence and age proof
Marksheet or certificate of final examination passed
Proof of admission to university and course
Schedule of course expenses
A copy of the scholarship letter (if you have it)
Last six months bank account statement of borrower, parent or guardian
Income tax assessment of borrowers, parents or guardians of last 2 years
For collateral- security details presented. If necessary, the candidate will have to find a lawyer and provide a report about his market potential, mortgage capacity etc.
Applicant Migration Proof.
Step 2: Personal Discussion
Once the applicant is done with the application form, there is a round of personal discussion with the bank employee, in which various questions related to him / her academic course, can be asked about the course / subject, which the institute Has chosen
There are even some banks which keep educational records important.
Step 3: Applicant is required to provide supporting documents
Before the bank considers the loan application, the applicant has to submit the mandatory documents related to the entry. The bank requires documents to verify the enrollment of the student of the concerned institution.
If your loan amount is Rs. More than. 4 then the applicant may also require collateral security such as mortgage of documents related to the property.
Step 4: Approval or denial of loan
A guarantor is mandatory for education loans. Parents or guardians of the applicant can be guarantors. The bank will conduct a thorough investigation of the guarantor and its credit history before sanctioning the loan.
After the process is completed, the bank can approve or reject the applicant’s loan.
Step 5: Disbursement of loan
After the formalities are completed by the applicant, the bank will disburse the loan. The bank pays the fees of the college / institution directly to the concerned institution.
Online application for education loan
Students can also apply for loan through online application
In addition to online application, education loans have been made even easier. Applicant can now apply for online education loan. The bank will approve the loan only when there is an applicant and main contact for actual acceptance and disbursement of education loan.
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